We have all been using glass materials through out our life but no one asks how is it made ? Generally we know it’s an industrial products

How is glass made?
Drinking Glass

Glass is a chemical process and it’s made up mainly of sand. Sand is what turns into glass and The process is called PPG process.
This process includes following stages-

  1. Melting
  2. Float Bath
  3. Coating
  4. Annealing
  5. Inspection
  6. Cutting.

Melting:

  • SiO2 – Silica Sand
  • Na2O – Sodium Oxide from Soda Ash
  • CaO – Calcium oxide from Limestone / Dolomite
  • MgO – Dolomite
  • Al2O3 – Feldspar
How is glass made?
Sand

above mentioned raw materials are mixed in controlled ratio and heated upto 1500 degree Celcius (Melting point of glass). Certain Metal Oxides are mixed with it to bring colors to the glass.

Float Bath:

Glass from the furnace flows over the refractory spout on to the molten tins mirror like surface, starts at 1100 deg Celsius , leaving the float bath as solid ribbon at 600 deg Celsius.

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Coating(for making reflective glasses):

Coating that make profound changes in optical properties is applied by high temperature technology to the cooling ribbon of glass. CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) is most significant process used for it.

Annealing:

In this process, the glass is made to move through the annealing lehr where internal stresses are removed allowing the glass more prone to cutting.

Inspection:

This is the most vital part of any production process. Here any kind of faults are determined like bubble that is not removed during refining, non-melted sand grains.

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Cutting:

In this process, the glasses is being cut into smaller size as initially it was a huge size of plate like structure. Final glass is sold in square meter.

The final glass to be sold is shown below-

How is glass made?
Glass Slab

The above process is used for the production of fine glasses which is to be sold in tiles like structure. But for any kind products like artistic products of glass the process is limited. Sand is melted along with raw materials and metal oxide if needed. When it forms lava like state then the artist starts their work with several instruments.

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Several artistic designs are shown below.

How is glass made?
Glass cube

Hope you understood how glass is made and where does it comes from. I hope you like this article and if you do so then please share this along with friends, family and on social platforms. Do not forget to comment in the comment section below.

Thank you!!!!

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